1984 by George Orwell

Section Two, Part IX Summary (pp. 179-218)

Winston is exhausted from overwork as he walks to Mr. Charrington's shop, carrying Goldstein's book. The reader learns Hate Week has passed, and as "the great orgasm was quivering to its climax" (180) the Party announced Oceania is actually at war with Eastasia and that Eurasia is an ally, with no admission any change had taken place. The change, however, had created a great deal of work for Winston at the Ministry of Truth altering documents to reflect the new reality.

Winston arrives at his rented room and reads Goldstein's book while he awaits Julia. The book states three superpowers exist, and they are in a state of constant, unwinnable war with one another. It also discusses the means by which the ruling party maintains power: "a hierarchal society [is] only possible on a basis of poverty and ignorance" (190). In order to "keep the wheels of industry turning without increasing the real wealth of the world" (190), the existing superpowers turned to warfare. Constant warfare keeps the masses poor, ignorant, and susceptible to control. The book explains how Inner Party members use "doublethink" to essentially believe their own lies about war and even reality in general.

The book also describes the modern scientist as either "a mixture of psychologist and inquisitor" (193) or a "chemist, physicist, or biologist concerned only with…the taking of life" (194). The book describes the "strategy" by which the superpowers hope to win, though it is impossible to achieve. The book explains citizens of Oceania (as well as of other countries) are never allowed access to foreigners because that would dispel the illusion they are different from people in Oceania. The section Winston is reading ends by asserting constant war has the same effect as constant peace, and thus "WAR IS PEACE" (199).

Winston begins reading again, this time to Julia. Winston reads about the three levels of human society: the High, the Middle, and the Low. The Middle, throughout time, usurps the High with the help of the Low and establishes a fresh tyranny. The Party acted in a similar manner, but essentially froze time to keep from being usurped. The ability to keep the people under constant surveillance allows the Party to enforce total obedience, and collectivism provides a secure base for oligarchy. Oceania's oligarchy is established through adherence to beliefs rather than by bloodlines. The book also details how the Party is able to control the minds of the populace by manipulating language and constantly altering the past. Winston reflects that he still does not understand the "ultimate secret" (217); he understands "how", but not "why".

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